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动词的ing和ed形式讲解与练习总结

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用作定语时,动词的-ing 形式既包括动名词又包括现在分词, 动词的-ed 形式仅是动词过去分词。

动词的-ing 形式做定语在句中通常有两个位置,如果是单个的动词的-ing 形式做定语,常放在被修饰词前做 前置定语;如果是动词的-ing 形式的短语做定语,常放在被修饰词后做后置定语。

如: 1.He is an attacking player.他是一个攻击型的运动员。

(表示运动员的特征) 2.He asked an embarrassing question.他提了一个令人难堪的问题。

(表示“令人….”) 3.A little child learning to walk often falls.学走路的小孩常常跌跤。

(表示被修饰词的动作或状态,动 词短语后置) 4.Do you know the number of people coming to the party?你知道来参加晚会的人数吗?(表示被修 饰词的动作或状态,动词短语后置) 注意:当-ing 形式做后置定语时,可以相当于相应的定语从句。

如: 1.A young man writing novels came to speak to us yesterday. →A young man who writes novels came to speak to us yesterday. 一位写小说的青年昨天来向我们作报告。

2.The girl sitting next to me was my cousin. →The girl who was sitting next to me was my cousin. 坐在我旁边的姑娘是我表妹。

另外需要注意的是上面做定语的动词-ing 形式表示的动作是正在进行的工作或习惯性的动作,如果和主句 谓语的动作不能同时发生时,则不能用-ing 形式做定语而必须用定语从句形式。

如: 昨天来我们学校的那位教授在明天给我们做报告。

3.The professor who came to our school yesterday will give us a lecture tomorrow. 不正确的表述:The professor coming to our school yesterday will give us a lecture tomorrow. 总结:-ing 形式做定语通常从以下三方面考查,即: 1)说明被修饰词的性质,特征或用途。

如: 1.They set up an operating table in a small temple.他们将手术台架设在一座小庙里。

2.He may be in the reading room, for all I know.他说不定在阅览室里。

3.Ladies and gentlemen, please go and wait in the meeting room. 女士们先生们,请去会议室等待。

2)与被修饰词为主动关系且表示正在进行的动作或习惯性的动作。

如: 1.There were about 200 children studying in the art school. 有大约二百个孩子在这所艺术学校学习。

2.Who is the woman talking to our English teacher? 正在和我们英语老师谈话的那位妇女是谁? 3) 有 些 -ing 形 式 已 经 转 化 成 形 容 词 , 常 做 定 语 用 来 修 饰 物 , 表 示 “ 令 人 ……” 。

常 用 的 此 类 词 有:exciting,amusing,amazing,astonishing,shocking,puzzling,confusing, disappointing,discouraging,pleasing,striking,boring,tiring,touching,moving, interesting, satisfying, terrifying, frightening 等。

如:

图1

1.That must have been a terrifying experience.那准时一段可怕的经历。

2.The experiment was an amazing success.那项试验是一个惊人的成功。

3.There is a page missing from this book.这本书缺了一页。

4)有些-ing 形式已经转化成名词,常做定语用来修饰物 The scanning electron micrographs 这些电镜扫描照片 除了-ing 形式能做定语外,如果-ing 形式与被修饰词是被动关系,就用它的被动式,即 being done. being doing 通常表示正在被做,常做后置定语。

如: 1.The tall building being built now is our new school. 正在被建的高楼是我们的新学校。

2.The question being discussed was presented by the headmaster. 正在被讨论的问题是被校长提出的。

-ing 形式做定语专练 1.The lady said she would buy a gift for her daughter with the _____. A.20 dollars remained C.remained 20 dollars A.covering B.covered B.20 dollars to remain D.remaining 20 dollars. C.cover D.to cover 2.The wild flowers looked like a soft orange blanket ______ the desert. 3.I was told that there were about 50 foreign students ____ Chinese in the school, most _____ were from Germany. A.study;of whom C.studying;of them A.to be discussing C.been discussed A.developed;belongs C.developing;belongs B.study;of them D.studying;of whom B.to discuss D.being discussed B.developing;belonging D.developed;belonged 4.The question ______ at present has something important to do with our daily life. 5.China is a _____ country ______ to the third world. 6.---Who is the man ______ to the teacher? ---A model worker _____ our school. A.talks,visits C.talking;visiting in the discussion? A.attend B.attending C.to attend D.have attended 8.The flowers _____ sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature. A.to smell B.smelling C.smelt D.to be smelt B.is talking;is visiting D.talking;visited 7.How many of us ________, say,a meeting that has nothing to do with us will be interested 答案:D A D D B C B B

图2

一、动词-ed 形式作定语 过去分词作定语往往与被修饰的词靠得很紧, 渐渐地成为一个复合词。

这种分词叫分词形容 词, 实际上相当于一个单纯的形容词, 除表示“已完成”的动作之外, 还表示“被动”的意义。

如: spoken English (英语口语); iced beer (冰冻啤酒); cooked food (熟食); fr chips (炸土豆条); 但要注意不及物动词的过去分词常表示“完成”的动作, 而不表示“被动”意义。

如: boiled water(开水); fallen leaves(落叶) ; the risen sun(升起的太阳)等。

1. The tall man is a returned student. 高个子的那个人是个归国留学生。

2. My parents are both retired teachers. 我的父母都是教师。

(1)前置定语 单个的动词-ed 形式,一般放在被修饰的名词的前面, 作前置定语。

The excited people rushed into building. 激动的人们冲进大楼。

Lost time can never be found again.虚度的时光, 无法挽回。

(2)后置定语 ①少数单个动词的-ed 形式, 如 left 等, 只能作后置定语。

1. Everything used should be marked.所有用过的东西应该做好标记。

2. The books left are for my students.剩下的书是给我的学生的。

②动词-ed 形式短语作定语时,通常要放在被修饰的名词的后面,在意思上相当于一个定 语从句。

1. Is there anything planned for tonight?今晚有什么活动吗? (=That has been planned for tonight) 2. The meeting, attended by a lot of people, was a success.这次会议有很多人出席, 开得很 成功。

(=which was attended by a lot of people) 1)Most of the artists __________ to the party were from South Africa. A.invited B. to invite C.being invited D. had been invited 2) The first text books ________ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A. having written B.to be written C. being written D. written 3) The Olympic games,_______ in 776 BC, didn't include women players until 1912. A. first playing B. to be first played C. first played D. to be first playing 4) Prices of daily foods _______through a computer can be lower than prices in stores. A. are bought B. bought C. been bought D. buying 5) Mr. Smith,____ of the speech, started to read a ____ novel. A. tired, boring B. tiring, bored C. tired, bored D. tiring, boring 二、动词-ed 形式作表语 过去分词作表语并无“完成”或“被动”之意,而是表示主语的状态或思想感情等。

如: He looked worr after reading the letter.看完信后, 他显得很忧虑。

When we heard of it, we were deeply moved.当我们听到这件事时, 被深深地感动了。

He seemed quite delighted at the idea.听到这个想法, 他似乎很高兴。

图3

作表语的-ed 形式可被 much, very, quite 等 所修饰。

I was very pleased at the news. 听了这消息我很高兴。

He grew much tired of the work. 他十分厌倦这工作。

He seemed quite delighted at the idea. 听了这想法他似乎很高兴。

1)Cleaning women in big cities usually get ____ by the hour. A. pay C. paid friends. A. separated C. lost B. spared D. missed B. paying D. to pay 2) As we joined the big crowd I got ____ from my 3) The pilot asked all the passengers on board to remain ____ as the plane was making a landing. A. seat B. seating C. seated

图4

D. to be seating 三、动词-ed 形式作宾语补足语 能用作宾语补足语的过去分词一般都是及物动 词,表示被动意义或已完成意义 ,有时候两者兼而有之。

作宾语补足语的过去分词与宾语有逻辑上的动宾关 系,即宾语是过去分词动作的对象。

如: She found the door broken in when she came back. 她回来时发现有人破门而人。

My grandfather had his old house rebuilt. 我爷爷找人重修了一下他的旧房子。

动词-ed 形式作宾语补足语的基本用法 动词的-ed 形式可以在“主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语”句 型中充当宾语补足语。

在这一结构中, 动词-ed 形式和它 前面的宾语构成逻辑上的被动关系。

如果这种句子改为 被动语态,原来的宾语补足语变成了主语补足语。

1. I must get my bike repaired. 我必须请人修理自行车。

(宾语补足语) 2. The girl was found beaten black and blue. 人们发现那女孩被打得青一块紫一块。

图5

(主语补足语) (1)动词-ed 形式可作表示感觉和心理状态的动词的宾语补 足语,这类动词包括 see, hear, watch, notice, feel, find, think, suppose, consider 等。

I have never heard him spoken ill of others. 我从未听过有人说他的坏话。

She felt a great weight taken off her mind. 她觉得心里轻松了些。

They considered the matter settled. 他们认为这问题解决了。

(2) 动词-ed 形式可作使役动词的宾语补 足语, 这类动词包括 make, get, have, keep, leave, hold 等。

I have my hair cut once a month. 我每个月理一次发。

He was trying to make himself understood. 他正努力使别人听懂自己。

She held her hands pressed against her face. 她用双手按着脸。

“have+宾语+done”结构有三个含义: ① (请人)把某事做完。

图6

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